Background: Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1), a dual-function glycoprotein, is secreted by endothelial cells, adipocytes, and kidney and vascular smooth muscle cells. It has been reported to participate in the development of atherosclerosis as an adhesion molecule and a pro-inflammatory enzyme. Increased VAP-1 levels are related to type 2 diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, stroke and chronic renal failure. The study aim was to investigate serum VAP-1 levels in patients with calcific aortic stenosis (AS) and the possible relationship between VAP-1 and severity of calcific AS.
Methods: A total of 168 patients was categorized as having mild (n = 54), moderate (n = 58), or severe (n = 56) AS. Serum VAP-1 levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results: The mean serum VAP-1 level was significantly higher in patients with AS compared to healthy controls (244.3 ± 50.1 ng/ml versus 149.8 ± 27.5 ng/ml, p <0.001), and in the severe AS group compared to the moderate and mild AS groups (288.3 ± 30.1 ng/ml, 243.1 ± 31.8 ng/ml, and 200.8 ± 43.2 ng/ml, respectively, p <0.001). The VAP-1 level was positively related to the maximum aortic gradient, mean aortic gradient, and maximum aortic jet velocity (r = 0.649, p <0.001; r = 0.660, p <0.001; r = 0.655, p <0.001, respectively) and negatively related to the aortic valve area (r = -0.683, p <0.001).
Conclusions: The present study was the first to demonstrate a significant relationship between increased serum VAP-1 levels and the severity of calcific AS. VAP-1 might be a useful biomarker for the evaluation of AS and the follow up of its severity.